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Enniatin A

Enniatin A

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Enniatins are a group of cyclohexadepsipeptide mycotoxins produced by Gnomonia errabuda and several Fusaria species, with phytotoxic, antibiotic, and insecticidal activities. Enniatins function as ionophors by their incorporation into the cellular membrane to form dimeric structures that transport monovalent ions across the membrane (especially the mitochondrial membranes) affecting oxidative phosphorylation uncoupling. It has been demonstrated that enniatins have a cytotoxic effect on human cancer cells. Furthermore, incubation of H4IIE hepatoma cells with enniatins strongly diminished phosphorylation of the ERK (p44/p42).